Printing Services will attempt to obtain copyright approval for
reproduction of materials that require it. To determine if your
copying request needs such approval, the following guidelines
Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-for-Profit Educational
l. Single Copying for Teachers
A single copy may be made of any of the following for a teacher
at his or her individual request for his or her scholarly research
or use in teaching or preparation to teach a class:
A. A chapter from a book;
B. An article from a periodical or newspaper;
C. A short story, short essay or short poem, whether or not from
a collective work;
D. A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture from a
book , periodical , or newspaper.
ll. Multiple copies for Classroom Use Multiple copies (not to
exceed in any event more than one copy per pupil in a course)
may be made by or for the teacher giving the course for classroom
use or discussion, provided that: A. The copying meets the tests
of brevity and spontaneity; and,
B. Meets the cumulative effect test, and;
C. Each copy includes a notice of copyright.
Where the above are defined as:
Poetry: (1) A complete poem if less than 250 words and if printed
on not more than two pages or (2) from a longer poem, an excerpt
of not more than 250 words
Prose: (1) Either a complete article, story or essay of less than
2,500 words, or (2) an excerpt from any prose work of not more
than 1,000 words or 10% of the work, whichever is less, but in
any event a minimum of 500 words.
Illustration: One chart, graph, diagram , drawing , cartoon or
picture per book or per periodical issue
Special Works: Certain work in poetry, prose or in "poetic
prose" which often combine language with illustrations and
which are intended sometimes for children and at other times for
a more general audience fall short of 2,500 words in their entirety;
however, an excerpt comprising not more than two of the published
pages of such special work and containing not more than 10% of
the words found in the text thereof, may be reproduced.
The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the individual
The inspiration and decision to use the work and the moment of
its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close in time
that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request
The copying is for only one course in the school in which the
copies are made
Not more than one short poem, article, story, essay or two excerpts
may be copied from the same author, nor more than three from the
same collective work or periodical volume during one class term.
There shall not be more that nine instances of such multiple copying
for one course during one class term.
(The limitations stated in the last two points above shall not
apply to current news periodicals and newspapers and current news
sections of other periodicals.)
lll. Prohibitions as to l and ll above
Notwithstanding any of the above, the following shall be prohibited:
A. Copying to replace or substitute for anthologies, compilations
or collective works.
B. There shall be no copying of or from works intended to be
'consumable' in the course of studying or of teaching. These include
workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and test booklets and
answer sheets and the like consumable material..
C. Copying shall not
1. Substitute for the purchase of books, publishers' reprints
2. Be directed by higher authority
3. Be repeated with respect to the same item by the same teacher
from term to term.
4. No charge shall be made to the student beyond the actual cost
of the photocopying.
*Printing Services reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying
order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve
violation of copyright law.