Cohen, University of Virginia
"Constellatory Modernism: Imperial Landmarks and Making
the World One"
paper looks at how global images of empire produced a tension in
late-nineteenth- and early twentieth-century imperialist administration.
Emigration enthusiasts made the case for moving metropolitan populations
to the settler colonies in terms of gender, race, and class. But
the propaganda of empire migration reflects an uneasy relationship
with new global totalizing images of empire, illustrating a tension
between empire migration's need for viable places and imperialism's
conquest of planetary space. Colonial emigration's structure of
feeling-the subjective, emotive power of these colonial places imagined
as open spaces before and beyond history, yet nevertheless intimately
connected with and capable of reproducing British civilization-was
under assault from the very patterns of imperial mastery of vast
spaces. The modernist artist, I suggest, confronted a similar challenge
in understanding metropolitan space.
Kristine Kelly, Case Western Reserve University
"Parodies of Empire: Colonial Fictions and the Politics
situated after nearly a century of British settlement and exploration
in South Africa, Olive Schreiner's The Story of an African Farm
(1883) offers a parodic response to metropolitan conceptions of
colonial conditions. Considered as a colonial parody, the novel
uses, I argue, a form that is peculiarly geopolitical in nature:
its narrative strategy is predicated on an awareness of geographical
difference between the imperial metropolis and the colonial periphery
and also on an ambivalent use of the social, moral, and political
connections between the two. The novel might be situated in parodic
repartee with a literature of the colonial exotic and with the British
domestic while not positively affiliating itself with either. By
its setting in a "vast" and "monotonous" desert
that can neither be converted nor mastered by European colonization,
African Farm responds to exotic fictions of colonial life and to
British public and philanthropic literature that represented the
colonies as virtual Eden's where England's disenfranchised peoples
might find moral and social redemption. The narrative contends that
"civilization" as envisioned by the imperialist cannot
penetrate this represented desert in any substantive way. In light
of its parodic self-positioning, this novel offers a precedent for
colonial fictions that seek to intervene on metropolitan discourses
of the global.
Kate Thomas, Dartmouth College
"Whiteness and Universalism in Nineteenth-Century Britain"
in Nineteenth Century at the end of the nineteenth century,
Conservative MP J. Henniker Heaton declared that under the newly-implemented
Imperial Penny Postage scheme "The postage-stamp would become
the symbol of Imperial unity, nay, more, the symbol of universal
Anglo-Saxon brotherhood." In this paper I show how together
the establishment of "All Red Routes" of communication
throughout the British Empire and the reinvention of America as
a colonial "daughter" and Britain's closest blood-relative
was essential to the establishment of both "Anglo-Saxon brotherhood"
and "Imperial unity."
"All Red Routes" were a network of communication channels
that spanned the Empire, crossing and connecting countries and populations
that were conjoined, as Goldwin Smith and others expressed it, "by
ties of blood and interest." These "ties of blood"
were those which bound white, Anglo-Saxon settlers across the world
to each other and to those who still dwelled in the mother country.
In 1847 a philanthropist from Connecticut named Elihu Burritt had
founded a Christian, pacifist organization called the League of
Universal Brotherhood, which promoted the aim of "Making Home
Everywhere and all Nations Neighbours" and campaigned for a
penny postage scheme that extended beyond the shores of England.
The league was an Anglo-American alliance, formed in response to
a scuffle between America and Britain over the ownership of Oregon,
which nearly resulted in war. Reading counter to the critical view
that the end of First Stage British Imperialism and the loss of
America as a British colony produced an anti-imperialist mood in
Britain, I claim that the mid-nineteenth century witnessed the growth
of a quasi anti-nationalist rhetoric that urged the establishment
of a white international brotherhood. I will analyse mid-century
rhetorical imperatives of racial harmony and international brotherhood
and describe their place in British imperialist discourse. I then
trace the end-point of such racialisation to later-century High
Imperialist literature, focusing on "The Five Orange Pips"
by Arthur Conan Doyle, in which Anglo-American communication channels
are connected to tropes of blood brotherhoods and racial violence,
and Goldwin Smith's 1887 essay "The Schism of the Anglo-Saxon
Matthias Bruhn, University of Hamburg
"The Commercial Image and the Process of Globalization"
modern picture-industry has developed efficient and highly specialized
mechanisms for the manufacturing and distribution of photographic
material that is to be used for a variety of purposes in mass-media,
advertising, or package design (like book covers, news magazines,
TV backgrounds, etc). Picture agencies can choose, arrange, and
promote their material in order to offer their customers a fast
and convenient access to their archives and electronic databases
by using simple keyword structures, providing selective catalogues
and thereby making suggestions for how to illustrate abstract notions
and everyday situations such as "beauty," "health,"
"environment," or "family life." The decision
which pattern can be successfully applied to what kind of message
is based on both the agents' experiences and the customers' response,
and since many types of illustration do not require a specific artistic
originality but allow the re-use of stereotypical icons, so-called
Stock Photography agencies have slowly become the unexpected
recorders of a collective memory defining the universal visual vocabulary
of the society they were developed in.
the other hand, as the production costs of pictures of an average
quality remain comparably high, the setting-up of a global distribution
system is to make the material available in as many countries as
possible and transports the corresponding imagery into other visual
cultures. Today, some agencies count several dozens of national
offices world-wide, consisting of a copy of their headquater's core
collection plus local additions. Though Stock Photography
could only survive in foreign contexts because of the fact that
the majority of global designers, editors, and readers has already
become familiar with the icons and ideas of the western society,
the transplantation of this kind of a pre-selected vocabulary and
the underlying system of visual representation into different cultures
has long-term and invisible effects for both the customers and the
Sharon Sliwinski, York University
"Blowback: Witnessing Bosnia Through the Lens of the Holocaust"
refraining from making direct political commentary, this paper revolves
around representations of atrocity and what other kinds of meanings
might lie within such images. Can we talk about the "blowback"
of witnessing testimonies of atrocity? Shoshana Felman asks a similar
question: "If history has clinical dimensions, how can testimony
intervene pragmatically and efficaciously at once historically (politically)
and clinically?" (1995). How can an exploration of testimony
generate new ways to think about intervention on an international
political (historical) scale? I propose to probe the "blowback"
of ITN's now iconic 1992 images of "concentration camps"
operated by Bosnian Serbs. ITN's images of the camp linked the conflict
to the most awful site of the 1940's: the concentration camp. But,
I argue, this (mis)reading, the substitution of the representation
of an event for the event itself, seems to only obliterate the actual
event. Such a fused structure that rejects all possibility to cultivate
a sense that past is past. Thus despite the growing predominance
of the medium as a privileged mode of communication, testimony remains
without ethical, clinical, historical or political guarantee.
Kirsten Ostherr, Wesleyan University
"Globalization as Viral Contagion"
global proliferation of biological and electronic viruses dominates
the daily news with a frequency that suggests a world on the brink
of apocalyptic crisis. The dissolution of national borders that
is said to characterize the new global economy is often represented
as an effect of the "new media" that link even the farthest
reaches of the globe in a virtual web, with alternately democratizing
and contaminating results. But the rhetoric of contagion that pervades
the contemporary discourse of globalization has a much longer history
than these panicked reports would suggest. My paper examines the
discursive construction of globalization as contagion in two historical
periods, through two different media. Beginning with The Silent
Invader (1957), I will argue that this public health film is
driven by a compulsion to represent visually the spread of invisible
contagions. This contradiction is resolved through a dialectic of
indexicality and artificiality, or authenticity and simulation.
That is, the film repeatedly attempts to produce realistic representations
of the viral invasion of national and bodily boundaries, but failing
to capture a photographic image of contagion, the film uses animation
(an artificial representational technique), in its cinematic inoculation
against communicable disease.
comparing two modes of representing global contagion through two
different technologies of visualization, my paper will ask how the
problem of "invisibility" is complicated or resolved by
post-photographic digital manipulations of the image of the diseased
body. If geopolitical and subjective boundaries are indeed dissolved
in the global marketplace of postmodernity, why is the imagery of
invasion so prevalent in representations of the new media technologies
that have enabled this world without borders to develop?
Marc Tuters, Concordia University
"Variations on a Videogame: Image-Touring the Real-Time
City of the Future"
the coming years wireless telecommunications, virtual reality (VR),
real-time kinematic GPS, and a spatialized version of the Internet
known as Worldboard will converge into what researchers are calling
augmented reality (Feiner et al 1993). Augmented reality (AR) will
allow for the architectonic space of modernism's machine city to
be texture map by the screens of postmodernism's cybercity, and
in so doing it will complicate those postmodern theories which propose
that time has conquered space. Paul Virilio for instance sees the
terminal destiny of the static screenal interface as one of interactive
confinement for its users (Virilio 1997). For Virilio real-time
access to decentralized networks has rendered both the strategic
centrality of the modern city and the bounding and containing functions
of architectonic space increasingly irrelevant, giving rise to what
he calls telecentrism. Since the 1970s and the beginnings of the
world economic crisis Virilio argues that the city gate has given
way to the airport security gate as point of entry into the global
city. A new urban paradigm emerged out of this period in which risk
management determined the design of space, with architecture increasingly
becoming a texture map (what Walt Disney called imagineering). Just
as Disney World was opening its gates in 1973, whole sections of
downtowns (which had lost their strategic value) were being transformed
into ghettos for undesirables. In the past decade however, these
"abandoned" downtown cores have been "claimed"
by multinational media conglomerates and developed into urban entertainment
destinations (Disney development of New York's Time Square is exemplary).
In this paper, I argue that Disney's imagineering architecture is
the template for the augmented reality texture map and that this
Disneyfication of urban space signifies the installation of its
infrastructure. If properly designed I argue that augmented reality
could allow for a virtual urban future that would replace Virilio's
interactive confinement scenario with one of techno-nomadisms. If
poorly designed the augmented reality future might literally create
black holes in the vision of its techno-tourists: holes into which
those on the other side of the digital divide would simply disappear.
Needham, Lakeland Community College
"Parochial and Ecumenical Imaginings of the 'World Out There':
Disney's Hunchback of Notre Dame and Transnational Exchanges"
"World Out There," the first showstopping tune of Disney's
Hunchback of Notre Dame, refers, in the immediate context
of the film, to the alleyways and marketplaces beyond the grand,
but stultifying confines of Notre Dame de Paris, as viewed longingly
by Quasimodo from his isolated perch in the belfry above. Full of
yearning, the song expresses Quasimodo's desire to be at liberty
among the masses on the street below, to exist freely and without
constraint outside the cloistered walls of the cathedral and beyond
the perverse, damaging ministrations of Archdeacon Frollo, in whose
narrow view, the "world out there"-a world of gypsies,
mountebanks, criminals, and other marginals-is dangerous and impure.
In a broader context, however, the "World Out There" refers
as well to an enlarged awareness of a global geography, urging,
on the part of its viewers, an acceptance of an ecumenical, not
parochial perspective and an unqualified participation in a New
World Order. It shares with other Disney film songs of the last
decade, i.e., Aladdin's "Whole New World," The
Little Mermaid's "Part of That World," a global orientation-the
"world out there"-and an underlying (potentially globalizing)
leitmotif-the desirability of a world without boundaries as the
dynamic, utopian geography of endless possibilities and freedoms-in
line with Disney Corporation's global mission: to be the worldwide
leader in family entertainment.
Jeannie Martin, University of Alberta
"Imaging the 'Child' in (Neo)Imperial Missions of Globalization"
Children and the Politics of Culture (1995), Sharon Stephens
claims that, in the age of accelerated globalization, we are witnessing
a profound restructuring of social and psychological constructs
of the child. Noting that issues of childhood have been neglected
in analyses of late capitalism, Stephens suggests that to explore
the processes of globalization the boundaries between politics and
culture need to be theorized. Jo-Ann Wallace initiates this work
in her study of the child's relation to theories of citizenship.
Stating that the child is the aporia upon which various theories
of knowledge have developed, Wallace notes a correspondence between
early modernist and contemporary social anxieties centered on the
child. Informed by these observations, this paper analyzes images
of the child to explore connections between late-British and "new"-global
imperialist constructions of an international child formally articulated
in the first Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1924). In this
analysis of global and local child-figures, I will situate the freely-traded
economic child to inform an exploration of cultural interventions
that prioritize human accountability. Interventionary images appearing
in an early modernist film by Save the Children share affinities
with those images indexed in such street-kid films as Luis Buñeul's
Los Olvidados (1950), Hector Babenco's Pixote (1981),
and Walter Salles's Central Station (1998). These films mark
various crises of poverty through the figural street-child posing
a primary threat to neo-liberal security; for alienated children,
such films demonstrate, affective security is inseparable from social
security. If ideological battles continue to be fought over the
solitary child, an "alien" Elián González,
for instance, then critical attention can be displaced from abandoned
children in metropolitan centers everywhere, thereby abetting economic
individualism at the expense of local and global social security.
John Grech, University of Technology, Sydney
loosely on Wim Wenders' Wings of Desire (1987) and Faraway
So Close (1993), this paper is about emptiness and space in
the city created by the collapse of the Berlin Wall. Taking the
form of an essayistic meditation, it is a travelogue that collages
some of the transformations and re-occupations of The City during
photographic documentation of Berlin with a range of written material,
the paper creates an interlacing fabric of a post-Cold War City
where spaces geographic, economic, political, visual, personal,
and linguistic are transcribed in an ambling sojourn from Postdamerplatz
to the Reichstag. This visual and verbal City is traversed by a
dislocated contemporary subject who shimmers between a role of citizen,
migrant, and tourist. One objective of this journey is to consider
how capitalism and language have occupied the City of Berlin after
the collapse of the Communist Bloc, a critical mapping in which
capitalism has become an underlying principle that threatens to
become the new universal order.
Chi-she Li, National Taiwan Normal University
"Globalization and Its Relics: A Melancholy History of Taipei
in Tzu Tianxing's 'The Old Capital'"
here that the discourse of alternative modernity, with its core
concept of reworking tradition, is insufficient to map out the relationships
between traditions and globalization in contemporary East Asian
countries. In spite of the possibility of a "flexible"
integration of tradition and globalization, there are still "bumps
on the road to this end," so to speak. I will seek to qualify
the optimism embedded in such a development discourse as "alternative
modernity" by examining how tradition has become abstracted
and reduced into nothing more than a myriad of images in globalization.
The example I give here is of a contemporary Taiwanese woman writer,
Tzu Tianxing, who reveals in her historical novella, "The Old
Capital," the relationship between the history of Taiwan and
contemporary globalization. Showing the major patterns of how traditions
are reshaped by forces of globalization in Taiwan, this novella
leads us to see the contraction between tradition and economic globalization
in East Asia, a critical vista repressed in the optimistic discourse
of alternative modernity. The melancholy history of Taipei, as unfolded
by the stream of consciousness of You in "The Old Capital,"
brings the reader to see the rupture between tradition and globalization:
tradition is likely to be compatible with globalization only when
it succumbs to the power of globalization in denying meaning and
appears in the form of a deferred gratification of what has been
Karl Erik Schollhammer, Pontificia Universidade Catolica
"Sebastião Salgado: Images from the Edge of the World"
Salgado, the most renowned Brazilian photographer nowadays, develops
in projects as Outras Americas, Terra e xodos, a photography
committed to new testimonial condition in the globalised world.
It is easy to recognize the portraits by Salgado, profoundly disquieting,
by the looks directed right at the lens of the photographer, the
observed silently accusing his observer. We feel that Salgado nevertheless
seeks to create a link of empathy with those represented, at the
same time that he demonstrates an acute sensitivity to the guilt
contained in his own observation. It is as if the exposure of the
poverty adversely affected his own reality. It is not possible to
know what represents the unique experience of each one of these
people, portrayed by the traveling photographer, but the affective
contact created by face and direct look freeze a privileged moment
of ethical provocation. The exotic is found here, in the center
of the incommunicable experience of suffering and dignity, of perseverance
in survival and of the presence of the inhuman in the life portrayed
that is revealed in Salgado's photos as silence, the sign of something
unutterable and non-communicable.
of identifying the representation of the radically different and
the exterior, the exotic in Salgado's photos is the result
of the recognition of an interior condition assumed as non-identity,
like a blank space - the middle ground - from which the identity
is suggested in the possibility of a political project of solidarity.
Nonetheless, in his project, the photos themselves are intended
to balance in a dangerous swing between two abysms of representation.
On the one hand, banality of pornographic overexposure of the poverty
is avoided, and, on the other, he resists the temptation of falling
into the romantic exoticism of a supposed original identity in pre-modern
cultures or in the simple life of poverty. The anthropological eye
is no longer the privilege of the traveler who visits a strange
world, guaranteed by his exterior position. It is characterized
by the look that takes risks and exposes itself to what is defined
as a stranger, foreigner and visitor. In his quest, he looks at
himself, recognizing that the alterity of the exotic involves and
at the same time represents the collective possibility of an unconfessable
community with that which threatens and escapes.
Ghosh, Independent Scholar
"New Global Communities: The Internet as a Tool to Build
Resistance to Corporate Capital"
dominant rhetoric on globalization has come from the corporate sector
and national governments representing these interests. This rhetoric
often advocates making national borders elastic in order to facilitate
the movement of trade and capital. This rhetoric mixes the idea
of free trade with democracy, various freedoms, cvilizational progress,
and individualism. Challenging these assumptions exists a counter-rhetoric
on globalization as experienced by marginalized groups and communities.
This counter-rhetoric does not have the same visibility in the media
as the former but does manage to influence it in definitive ways.
paper deals with this counter-rhetoric on globalization. In particular
it studies the use of a Web site by the Narmada Bachao Andolan,
a grassroots movement on the banks of the Narmada river in India.
This movement protests the human rights abuses and environmental
destruction caused by the construction of big dams on this river.
As part of the protest the inhabitants of the river valley use the
media - including the Internet - to show images of endangered communities,
their local habitat, and their attempts to protest and gain visibility.
Consequently, they succeed in establishing complex links with people
from other classes, regions, and nations, and create an imagined
global community of support.
examine the nature of this imagined community in my paper. I look
at the manner in which grassroots activists and the middle class
supporters interrupt each other. Such interruptions are often fractious
and open up spaces in which actions lose their precise meanings
and create the possibility of multiple interpretations. It is precisely
in such ambiguous spaces that power fluctuates, hegemonies break
down, and new modes of intercommunal relationships become possible.
Such possibilities redefine the processes of globalization.
Tsung-yi Huang, SUNY Stony Brook
"Walking in Tokyo: Between Global Flows and Carnal Flows"
paper looks at the relationships among walking violence, and globalization
in Tokyo. I juxtapose the representation of space of Tokyo, the
official account of an efficient, affluent informational city of
the future, with the representational space, the private account
dramatizing walking in Tokyo in Sinya Tsukamoto's films Tetsuo:
The Iron Man series and Tokyo Fist. In this social/urban
account, I examine some significant urban restructuring projects
during Tokyo's formation into a global city in the 1980s to demonstrate
how the Tokyo metropolis invites its inhabitants to identify with
the city's new image and find their sense of self firmly anchored
in it. In other words, the global city prescribes a model relationship
between the inhabitants and the space to its best advantage. In
this sense, Tokyo is Henri Lefebvre's capitalist abstract space
par excellence, which promotes flexible accumulation of capital
at the cost of the inhabitants' everyday-life space.
the first part of this paper is devoted to exposing the invisible
violence of Tokyo's abstract space, the second section seeks to
critique the normalizing power by exploring mimicry, a possible
aberrational response to the abstract space. I will draw on Roger
Caillois' theory of mimicry to explain how the films of Sinya Tsukamoto,
one of the most interesting contemporary Japanese directors, demonstrate
the relationships among mimicry subjectivity, and space under the
domination of the global economy. The theory of mimicry helps to
explain how the subject can be so overwhelmed by and attracted to
the power of the abstract space that he becomes one with the space
by mimicking the forces imposed upon him, as seen in Tsukamoto's
films. In these works, Tokyo signifies a wild kinetic field for
the flows of primal desires and fears as well as for global flows.
The pathological violence permeating the images of walkers and their
walking invites us to (re)consider the effects of the imposing global
Marguerite Helmers, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
"Because It's There: Mount Everest and Ideology"
from the premise that an icon is a gateway to something beyond ordinary
experience as well as a widely-recognizable image, this essay explores
some of the ways the Mount Everest has taken on iconic proportions
in contemporary society. Drawing on writings about mountains in
general and Mount Everest in particular, the essay focuses on two
films about Everest ascents: The Conquest of Everest (1953)
and the IMAX Everest (1998).
Ivy I-chu Chang, National Chiao Tung University
"An Alien Traveler: The Portrait of an Asian American Queer
as an Artist"
Kwang Chi is an Asian American photographer who was born in Hong
Kong and immigrated to Canada with his family at the age of 16.
In 1978, he moved to the East Village in New York and developed
his career as a photographer. Beginning in 1979, he spent ten years
in creating his visual arts, "East Meets West: The Expedition
Series." In these visual art series, he was dressed in Mao
suits, and shot photos of "self portrait" in front of
famous tourist sights all over the world: London Bridge, The Statue
of Liberty, Disney World, Cape Canaveral, The Eiffel Tower, The
Empire State Building, The Grand Canyon, and so on. Almost without
being noticed by most audiences, whenever Tseng made sa self-portrait
in the Mao suit, he always wore a tiny photo identification badge,
which read: "visitor: SlutforArt." Tseng drew attention
from cultural and art critics since he began exhibiting photographs
in New York in the mid-1980s. In 1990, Tseng died of AIDS, at the
age of 39. In 1999, nine years after Tseng's death, Tseng Muna,
a dancer and Tseng Swang Chi's sister, collaboratd with Theater
Director Ping Chong and performaed a dance theater, SlutforArt,
in memory of her brother as well as other New York artists who died
of AIDS. Muna Tseng's SlutforArt was a multi-media dance theater
which combined her solo dance, slides of Tseng Kwang Chi's family
photos and artistic photographs, and audio/visual documentations
of interviews with Tseng Kwang Chi's friends and relatives who talked
about Tseng's ambivalence and cultural schizophrenia between his
white gay friends, Chinese family, and the artistic community in
the East Village in New York. In this paper, I analyze Tseng Kwang
Chi's "East Meets West" and Tseng Muna's dance theater,
SlutforArt, especially in relation to the orientalist gaze, the
map of queer global cartography Tseng Kwang Chi constructed, and
the slippage and cleavage of memories and lives in the wake of globalization.
Ute Lehrer, SUNY Buffalo
"The Spectacularization of the Building Process: Berlin,
This paper examines the relationship between image production and
the building process of large-scale projects. While construction
sites in themselves always had some fascination in the imaginary
of the spectator, it is the building process that has changed under
the impact of globalization. It is no longer only about how to erect
buildings and how to advertise the outcome in order to be competitive
on a global market place, but it is also about selling the process.
In other words it is not only about the idea and the product but
also about the process in between. I call this new phenomenon the
"spectacularization of the building process."
the case to be studied I will use Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, which
was redeveloped as an office and entertainment complex over the
past ten years. I argue that this mega-project was key in Berlin's
search for a new identity, and that the spectacularization of the
building process was central in the attempt to appropriate Potsdamer
Platz as (a) the new center of Berlin and (b) as a symbol of Berlin's
role on a global scale.
Vetters, University of Ghent and Rutgers University
"'You Can't Beat the Feeling': Selling the World in the
Age of Globalization"
view from the moon described by American astronaut Frank Borman
in Newsweek in December 1968 ("this is really one world
and why the hell can't we learn to live together like decent people")
became accessible to everyone after an astronaut took a series of
photographs of the earth during the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. In
the years that followed, one of these photographs, known as AS17-148-22727,
became one of the most popular images of the earth ever produced.
As Richard Muir explains in Political Geographies, not only
did "the photographic image of the planet . . . [supplant]
the Mercator map and the cartographer's globe as an icon of the
Earth," it also became a symbol of the earth's "oneness."
however, this symbol of the earth's oneness is not so mucha ssociated
with Borman's utopian vision of a universal brotherhood but with
fast Internet connections, investment opportunities, quarterpounders
with cheese, and promises of overnight delivery. Since the late
1980s, versions of and variations on AS17 have become the image
used by international corporations and multinationals to promote
the oneness of a global market, selling not so much a series of
products and services as a single, reassuring idea, namely that
despite our differences, we're all the same because we want the
same things. Yet AS17 has not become the exclusive property of global
capital. In Night on Earth by Jim Jarmush, for example, an
image of the globe from outer space is used to remind us of the
potential of Borman's vision, creating a narrative that spatializes
time, raising questions about universalism, center and periphery,
and the politics of seeing, while promoting another, more comlex
type of narrative, centered on what Bruce Robbins has recently called
Feeling Global. This paper seeks to explore the history,
use, and significance of the globe as image and the various strategies
involved in selling the global village (or, more accurately, the
Global City) both as a product and as an idea.
Susan Parulekar, Syracuse University
"Transforming and Imagining Elite Femininity in Mumbai:
Femina Magazine 1960-2000"
its images were generally always of elite lifestyle in Mumbai, Femina
was read mainly by urban, English-educated middle class women until
it was substantially changed into an international quality publication
in the 1908s and its readership became a body of elite young women.
This examination of forty years of Femina allows us to take
a gendered perspective on globalization, and to observe how global
flows of transnational capital help to shape elite femininity in
Mumbai. During the 1960s and 1970s, when the Indian economy was
open to foreign trade and investment, issues of Femina, a popular
Indian women's magazine, were quite international in flavor. However,
during the 1980s, this content took on a more provincial tone. Through
nearly 50 years of Femina, this presentation examines changing
depictions of Indian women against the backdrop of India's changing
economy. It also demonstrates ways in which female sexuality is
used to advertise products-or not.